Russia was (and is) a vast country that is difficult to govern:
Russians only made up about half the population
Many languages, races & cultures were to be found within the empire
Russia stretches over many time zones & climates, most of the latter are
Russia is land-locked and therefore isolated

Russia was an autocracy ruled by Tsar Nicholas II, (Romanov) he was:
Young & inexperienced
Did not really want to rule, but took on the burden as a God-given &
unavoidable sacred duty
He was a devoted family man much influenced by his German wife, Alexandra
He was unfortunate to rule at a time of rapid change, modernisation and
major war

The characteristics of Russia were:
An inefficient administration
A secret police (Okhrana)
A supreme Orthodox Church
No parliamentary structures (before 1906)
No opposition was allowed
An inadequate Tsar, a disliked Tsarina and an invalide Tsaravitch
It was rapidly becoming industrialised, but was still backward & inward
Over 70% of the population were peasants (muzhiks); serfdom had only been
abolished in 1861